Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) are arguably the most faithful and the most powerful modeling system in oncology today. And while PDX models are far from being perfect, most researchers find them extremely useful in studying cancer biology, biomarker development, drug discovery, and drug response. To date, no other system can provide a more accurate representation of human cancer than a PDX model can.
A scanning electron microscope, or SEM, is one of the most popularly used instrumental methods for examining and analyzing the microstructure and morphology of solid materials. Basically, it operates using the same principles as a light microscope with one main difference: It uses focused electron beams instead of photons in magnifying an object.
While antibiotics are designed to directly hinder bacterial translation, their efficacy is significantly reduced when pathogens develop drug resistance through a variety of mechanisms, which include ribosomal modifications, translation elongation factors, ribosomal protection proteins, and mistranslation.
Topics: Protein Purification, Western Blotting, Protein Electrophoresis, Protein Estimation, Sample Clean Up, Protein Concentration, Protein Fractionation, Protein Extraction, Buffers & Chemicals, Protein Detection