DNA extraction refers to the technique(s) used in isolating DNA from a biological sample (cell membranes and other cellular components, tissues, proteins, bacteria, fungus, viruses) by disrupting the cell wall/cell membrane and nuclear envelope through physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods. DNA can be extracted from various sources, including the blood and body fluids, hair, buccal swab, frozen tissue sections, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, and direct Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). There are a wide variety of kits and methods commercially available for isolation of DNA.
When investigating a particular protein of interest, the first step is to separate it from the non-protein components and from all the other proteins in the complex sample mixture (cell, tissues, or whole organisms) by exploiting differences in size, physical and chemical properties, binding affinity, and biological activities of individual proteins.
Basically, protein purification allows researchers to identify and examine the properties of the protein of interest, including its structure, function, and interactions. When classified according to purpose, protein purification can either be preparative or analytical.
Topics: Protein Purification
What Are the Different Types and Grades of Water Used in Research and Industrial Application?
Water grade is dependent on the nature of impurities one is considering. Water impurities are generally minerals, chemicals and organic, and biological. Average city water will contain all these impurities in different proportions. City water supplies and their level of acceptable impurities is highly dependent on where one lives and the nature of local rules and regulations.
Depending on the nature of water use, commonly used terminologies for water grades are molecular grade water, DNase, and RNase, and nuclease free water, DEPC treated water, proteomic grade water, endotoxin free water, distilled water, deionized water, water for injection (WFI), pharma grade water, biotech grade water, biological grade water, cell culture grade water, HLPC grade water, Ultapure grade water.
What Are Biocides?
Biocides are non-antibiotic agents used as preservatives, disinfectants, or antiseptics. Although most biocides are chemical agents, microorganisms can also be used as biocides to suppress the growth of other organisms. Biocides act either by killing microorganisms or inhibiting their growth. Biocides can be further classified by their intended application. Preservatives are added to products to increase their shelf-life by preventing microbial decomposition. Disinfectants are agents that are applied to inanimate objects and surfaces, whereas antiseptics are agents applied to living tissue such as mucous membrane or skin. In today’s world, biocides are frequently encountered. Preservatives are ubiquitous and are found in a diverse array of products ranging from food, beverages, and cosmetics to pharmaceutical drugs, biological samples, and research products. Likewise, the use of disinfectants has increased dramatically in response to the worldwide pandemic, and antiseptics are increasingly important in hospital settings.
Topics: Molecular Biology